Vacunación en adultos

Autores/as

  • María del Rosario Espinoza Mora Universidad de Costa Rica
  • Gustavo Lazo Páez Universidad de Costa Rica
  • Christian Schauer Universidad de Costa Rica

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51481/amc.v59i2.956

Palabras clave:

vacunas, inmunidad celular, inmunodeficiencia, inmunogenicidad, inmunosupresión

Resumen

Introducción: cada año, miles de adultos mueren por causa de enfermedades prevenibles mediante vacunación. Sin embargo, la aplicación de vacunas en adultos es muy baja a nivel mundial por múltiples razones, incluyendo los altos costos de implementación.

Objetivos: discutir las recomendaciones nacionales e internacionales de inmunización de personas mayores de 18 años, incluyendo las poblaciones con alto riesgo de adquirir infecciones inmunoprevenibles y resumirlas en un esquema recomendado para vacunación de adultos en general, y personas con elevado nivel de riesgo.

Métodos: se efectuó una revisión no sistemática de bibliografía médica y científica publicada entre 2000 y 2017, concerniente a vacunación en adultos. Así mismo, se compararon los esquemas de inmunización vigentes en América y Europa.

Conclusiones: las recomendaciones para vacunación en adultos se basan principalmente en edad, condiciones médicas subyacentes, estilo de vida, inmunizaciones previas, características epidemiológicas locales y viajes. La necesidad de aplicar un esquema de vacunación adecuado a la población general y a poblaciones con factores de riesgo, representa una medida de gran importancia en un sistema de salud funcional. En este sentido, la adecuada asesoría e información provenientes del personal de salud constituyen un predictor clave en la inmunización de adultos.

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2017-05-09 — Actualizado el 2017-05-09

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Cómo citar

Mora, M. del R. E., Páez, G. L., & Schauer, C. (2017). Vacunación en adultos. Acta Médica Costarricense , 59(2), 50-59. https://doi.org/10.51481/amc.v59i2.956